The spacecraft began the journey to the space station from the Baikonur spaceport in Kazakhstan at 1.45 am EDT (10.45 am local Kazakh time) and it docked to the space station at 4.48 am EDT.
Wednesday was the first time a manned journey was completed in such a short time, even beating the fastest time of missions carrying supplies to the station.
Two Russian cosmonauts Sergey Ryzhikov and Sergey Kud-Sverchkov and NASA astronaut Kate Rubins launched on the Soyuz MS-17 spacecraft October 15 from Baikonur bound for the International Space Station, reported the Roscosmos press service.
According to Roscosmos, the fastest a spacecraft has ever reached the ISS is 3 hours 19 minutes.
Typically, there's a bit of a delay between when astronauts launch from Earth to the International Space Station, and when they actually dock with the orbital lab. The record was set during an unmanned resupply mission in August 2019.
The new crew will spend six months aboard the ISS.
Ryzhikov, a 46-year-old previous military pilot, has gone through 173 days in space contrasted with Rubins' 115 while Kud-Sverchkov, 37, is flying unexpectedly.
Oxygen generation system failures happen on the ISS, but the station has oxygen reserves.
"We will take with us additional equipment which will allow us to detect the place of this leak more precisely", he told reporters.
Roscosmos has had the job of ferrying USA astronauts to the ISS since the retirement of the space shuttle in 2011.
The launch is sandwiched between two SpaceX missions - the first manned spaceflights to the ISS under NASA's aegis since 2011.
A NASA TV commentator said everything was normal, citing communications between Russian mission control and the crew, while Roscosmos said the capsule had successfully gone into orbit.