Labour leader Jeremy Corbyn could be heard shouting across the chamber: "You won't be cheering in September!"
"So it's now a question of politics - specifically whether a PM pursuing a no-deal Brexit can command and sustain the confidence of the House of Commons".
MPs opposed the motion by 309 votes to 298.
Jeremy Hunt, one of the candidates vying to succeed Prime Minister Theresa May, said the British parliament would likely block a no-deal Brexit so the country needed a leader who could negotiate with the European Union rather than making empty threats.
He said: "Business can have no absolute reassurance that an agreement will be reached, particularly given the commitment of some Conservative leadership candidates to leaving the European Union in October with or without a deal".
Referring to his record as mayor of London, he said: "I do what I promise to do as a politician".
Labour used an opposition day to table a controversial business motion that sought to "put power back in the hands of Parliament" and pave the way for another vote in June that, if passed, would block a no deal. Departing Prime Minister Theresa May tried and failed three times to convince Parliament to approve it. "There will be no renegotiations as far as the content of the withdrawal agreement is concerned".
"Any Tory leadership candidates should know that Parliament will continue to fight against no deal".
Johnson is hugely popular with grassroots supporters, but supporting no-deal is a calculated risk.
Leadership hopefuls Rory Stewart and Mark Harper have both said leaving without a deal is unacceptable, but chose not to support the Labour motion.
Conservative rebels will join forces with opposition parties in a crucial test of parliament's ability to block a no-deal exit, as Tory debate on the issue was dismissed by Sir Keir Starmer, the shadow Brexit secretary, as ludicrous. "That's why we are taking this latest measure to end the uncertainty and protect communities across the country".
Fear within the ranks of the Conservative Party has only been exasperated following the Peterborough by election last week, where a split vote between Nigel Farage's Brexit Party and the Conservatives saw a Labour victory in the leave stronghold.
Sky News political correspondent Lewis Goodall tweeted: "Get ready for an election in the autumn".