President Donald Trump has resisted pinning the blame for the killing on Mohammed, who enjoys a close relationship with Jared Kushner, the president's son-in-law and senior adviser.
On Thursday, Saudi Arabia's public prosecutor announced it would seek the death penalty for five of 11 suspects, even though Turkish leader Recep Tayyip Erdoğan said the killing was ordered at the "highest levels" of the Saudi government.
Saudi Arabia's top diplomat has said the crown prince had "absolutely" nothing to do with the killing.
The intelligence agencies' conclusion will bolster efforts in Congress to further punish the close USA ally for the killing. The conclusion was first reported by The Washington Post. The Saudi government has denied bin Salman's involvement in Khashoggi's death.
The American spy agency isn't commenting on the reports.
Mr Khashoggi had been at the consulate to obtain documents so he could marry his Turkish fiancee.
"The United States is determined to hold all of those accountable who are responsible for that murder", Mr Pence said on the sidelines of an APEC summit in Papua New Guinea.
A theory the Central Intelligence Agency has developed is that Mohammed believed Khashoggi was a unsafe Islamist who was too sympathetic to the Muslim Brotherhood, according to people familiar with the assessment.
Saudi officials have said a team of 15 Saudi nationals were sent to confront Khashoggi at the consulate and that he was accidentally killed in a chokehold by men who were trying to force him to return to the kingdom.
The Times cited officials as saying United States and Turkish intelligence so far have not found direct evidence connecting the prince to Khashoggi's killing.
Sources quoted in the United States media stressed that there was no single piece of evidence linking the crown prince directly to the murder, but officials believe such an operation would have needed his approval.
The sanctions freeze any assets the 17 may have in the USA and prohibit any Americans from doing business with them. "I've been fully briefed on it, there's no reason for me to hear it", Trump said in the interview with "Fox News Sunday".
Donald Trump has resisted pinning the blame on the Saudis because of the close alliance between the U.S. and Saudi Arabia. Trump has told aides that he wants Mohammed to stay in power and that he sees the Saudis as the best strategic check on Iran and as a vital source of oil.
Khashoggi, a U.S. resident and Washington Post columnist, was killed in the Saudi consulate in Istanbul on 2 October, sparking global outrage against the kingdom and its de facto ruler, Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman.
Speaking at a panel as part of an worldwide conference in Halifax, Canada, Akar said Khashoggi's killers may have taken the journalist's body parts out of Turkey in luggage.
The purported intercepted phone call - denied by the Saudis - between MBS's brother in Washington, Prince Khalid bin Salman, and Khashoggi, urging him to visit the Saudi consulate in Istanbul, would appear to be at the behest of the crown prince.
Shalaan on Thursday said Prince Salman, Saudi Arabia's de facto ruler, knew nothing of the operation. This person said Trump has repeatedly criticised how Mohammed has handled the situation and has said it is clear they are hiding facts.
Turkey has said a group of 15 individuals, including a two-man "clean-up team", was involved and that Khashoggi's body had been dismembered.
"Prince Khalid bin Salman has never had any phone conversations with him".
The prince said in a Twitter post on Friday that the last contact he had with Khashoggi was via text on October 26, 2017, almost a year before the journalist's death.