The goal saw Salah shrug off two players on the right-hand side of the penalty area before curling in a attractive effort into the top corner of the net from an improbable angle to give Liverpool a 1-0 lead in their Premier League tie against Everton a year ago.
Cristiano Ronaldo, who scored an overhead kick in the Champions League against current club Juventus, and Gareth Bale, who hit one of his own in the Champions League final against Liverpool, are among those to miss out on the award.
The Egyptian striker picked the ball up on the edge of the Everton box, breaking free of his marker before curling a left-footed strike into the top corner.
He was presented with the award for the best goal scored between July 2017 and July 2018 during The Best FIFA Football Awards ceremony, on Monday, in London.
He told the audience at the Royal Festival Hall that he hoped to win another prize later in the evening.
The 49-year-old was up against Croatia coach Zlatko Dalic, whose side lost to France in the final in Russian Federation this summer, and Zinedine Zidane, who led Real Madrid to a third straight Champions League win.